Bicentenario de las Independencias Americanas

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The roots of the Spanish Empire in America establishes after the Caribbean colonization, between 1519 and 1540. The expansion was geographically oriented towards two areas: Central America and the Andean region of South America. Hernán Cortés will go from Cuba to Mexicos Central Valley, an issue that will put an end to the Aztecs civilization between 1519 and 1822. The other great conquer movement starts in Panama towards Central America and focuses in the current Nicaragua (1523-1524) and heads south. Not long after, Pizarro, at Peru (1523-1524) will achieve the fall of the Inca Empire. Pedro de Valdivia will get into Chile in 1542, although he wont be able to overcome the araucaria resistance and consolidate his status in the southern part of the country. From the Atlantic, Pedro de Mendoza (Guadix, Granada, 1499-Atlantic Ocean, 1537) will try to get control over La Plata (1535-1536). The colonization process of the South will be slow and will stop in Paraguay until 1580.

It is also in the 16th Century, when the leap to the Pacific Ocean incorporates the Philippine Islands, The Marianas´ and The Carolinas´ to the Hispanic Monarchy.

During the 17th Century a great wave of immigration from Europe in made to the New World. The arrival of the Jesuits in 1692 is an evangelization process and the English starts immigrating to North America in 1607.

In the 18th Century, the Spanish domains are still the biggest of all the empires made colonies. During this century, a series of expeditions are made through the American Pacific Coast heading north until getting to Alaska. The colonial rivalries will settle, due to the dispute of the slave trade territory between English, French, Spaniards, Portuguese and Danish. Part of the American territories will change their ownership: Florida will pass on to England in 1763 and once again to Spain. Louisiana will pass on from the French to the Spaniards in 1763. Sacramento, will pass from the Portuguese to the Spaniards in 1750, but will return to the Portuguese in 1763 and finally will be returned to the Spaniards in 1777. The Spaniards will hold Banda Oriental, held by the Portuguese, once again in 1750.



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