Person - Gómez Serrano, Eliseo (1889-1939)

Gómez Serrano, Eliseo (1889-1939)

Identification

Type:

Person

Preferred form:

Gómez Serrano, Eliseo (1889-1939)

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

València (España)  1889-11-14 - 1939-05-05

History:

Spanish teacher and politician. He was a son of Domingo Gómez Granería (Sueca, 1851 - Serra, 1927) and Francisca de Paula Serrano Marí (Sueca). This marriage had ten children, but only three of them survived. The oldest one was Nicolau Primitiu (Sueca, 1877 ‑ Valencia, 1971), Eliseo (1889) and Francisco (1896). From the second marriage of his father, the historian Emili Gómez Nadal (1907-1993) was born. Emili was married to the librarian Teresa Andrés Zamora (1907-1946). Both with his brother Nicolau Primitiu and with Emili, Eliseo maintained a very good relationship and flowing correspondence. He studied primary and high school in the city of Valencia, and in 1912 he obtained the higher grade of teaching. That same year he moved to Madrid in order to attend the Escuela de Estudios Superiores del Magisterio (School of Higher Education of Teaching) of Madrid and study music. A year later he joined the school activities: excursions to the Sierra, creation of a magazine, lectures at the Ateneo and he rubbed shoulders with intellectuals of the era such as Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (1857 - 1935) or Rafael Altamira (1866 - 1951). The economic situation during his student years in Madrid was not good so, on several occasions, he asked for help from his brother Nicolau Primitiu, who had taken over the family business by modernizing it and converting the farm implements manufacturing company into the company Mecano Agrícolas Domingómez. During the Spanish Civil War it was also dedicated to armament. He tried to get a place in Student Residence to alleviate his maintenance problems. Finally he was able to enter for the course 1913‑1914 and, there, he was substantially influenced by the personalities with which he was in touch. He obtained the title Primary School Teacher with very good grades, being the third of his entire class. In 1915 he took office of the vacant position of Professor of Geography in the Normal School of Teachers of Alicante. During his years of study he was classmate of Emma Martínez Bay (Alicante, 1893-1957), daughter of the merchant Manuel Martínez Sánchez (Elda, 1859 - Valencia, 1942) and of Enriqueta Bay Alberola (Alicante, 1862 ‑ Valencia, 1941). He started a relationship with her and, although they tried to formalize it through marriage, the low salary of professor did not allow it. Three years later, on 24 April 1919 and due to an increase in the salary of the teachers of the Normal Schools, he was finally able to marry Emma, ​​who was then a teacher of Pedagogy and History in the Normal School of Primary Education of Alicante. From the marriage between Eliseo Gómez Serrano and Emma Martínez Bay, three children were born: Emma Gómez Martínez (Alicante, 1920-2002), Blanca Gómez Martínez (Alicante, 1923), and Francisco de Paula Gómez Martínez (Alicante, 1927-1984). After the death of the two sisters of Emma Martínez Bay with only a few days of difference in 1921, the couple decided that Eliseo's in‑laws would move in with them. From then on they established their residence on two apartments connected to each other, one located in Bailén Street, nº 4, and the other in the Plaza de Castelar, nº 2 of Alicante's capital. In 1924 Eliseo Gómez Serrano began his law degree at the University of Granada. For some time his wife also moved with her daughter Emma and taught pedagogy classes at the University. However, due to Emma's health problems, she and her daughter returned to Alicante. Eliseo finished her law studies in November 1927. A year later, in 1928, Emma Martínez Bay applied for the vacant position of director and teacher of pedagogy at the Normal School of Teachers of Alicante, where she actively participated in the development of the Colonias Escolares de Biar (School Camps of Biar). Nevertheless, the professional career of Emma Martínez Bay was cut short on 5 February 1940, when the Comisión Depuradora met. It was unanimously agreed that the charges that were approved on 7 February of that same year should be written. Among others, they recognized that: she was disaffected to the GMN, had favored the institution of anti‑fascist women, or had propagated and voted for the Frente Popular (Popular Front candidacy). On 14 May 1940, the unfavorable report of Emma Martínez Bay was approved unanimously. She was penalized with the change of services by other analogous ones contemplated in artículo 2º de la Orden de 18 de marzo de 1939 (B. O. del 23; article 2 of the Order of March 18, 1939) and, expanded by Orden 19 de diciembre de 1939 (B. O. E. n.º 359, de 25 de diciembre de 1939; Order 19 of December of 1939), when considering that, in spite of having a personal or political conduct not seriously punishable, it was derived, nevertheless, by her ideology, which was a possible and serious danger of antireligious or anti‑national proselytism. Among other, Ángel Pascual Devesa (1890-1950), a doctor who was also sanctioned and sent to Valencia, until he was arrested and imprisoned in Chinchilla and Ocaña accused of trying to rebuild the Izquierda Republicana (Republican Left) in Alicante, was one of his closest friends. Eliseo participated actively in the cultural life of Alicante, to the point of occupying on several occasions some management positions of the Scientific, Literary and Artistic Athenaeum: in 1930 he was second vice president, president in 1931 and spokesperson in 1934 and 1935. In 1931, after winning the elections of 12 April, he was part of the first consistorial team of the Republican City Council of Alicante, occupying the position of Councilman of Culture. Two days later on 4 April, the Republic was proclaimed at the Alicante City Council. During that year the Normal Schools of Teachers were merged, with María Ballvé Aguiló as director of the centre. She held this position until December 1931, when Eliseo Gómez Serrano was appointed director. He combined his pedagogical activity with his political position. During this period he participated in various committees, including the Comisión de Instrucción Pública (Public Instruction Committee) of Alicante, in which he was very actively involved in solving the problems facing education in Alicante. In fact, in September 1931 he presented a General Plan of School Organization in the Plenary Session of the City Council that analyzed the educational situation and proposed improvements to alleviate the deficiencies found. In the performance of his position he promoted the construction of new schools, as well as the incorporation of bilingualism in the classrooms. In 1933 he traveled with the mayor of Alicante, Lorenzo Carbonell Santacruz (Alicante, 15 June, 1883 - 27 January 1968) in an official delegation of the Alicante Town Council to Oran (Algeria), in order to strengthen ties between the two cities. That same year, in 1933, Eliseo was replaced as director of the Normal School, a position held by Manuel Sala Pérez (1892 - 1961) in a more conservative nature. In 1934 he held the position of professor due to the rise of the rights. In 1936 he was part of the list of candidacies of the Frente Popular de Izquierdas (Popular Left Front) for parliamentary deputies for Alicante along with: Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz, Carlos Esplá Rizo, Miguel Villalta Gisbert, Jerónimo Gomáriz Latorre, Ginés Ganga Tremiño, Juan José Cremades Fons, and Salvador García Muñoz. Finally he was elected deputy to the Cortes for the Alicante Town Council as a member of Izquierda Republicana. Because of this, he had to ask for leave of absence in the Normal School due to the Law on Incompatibilities in force since 1933 (Gaceta de Madrid No. 99, of 09/04 / 1933, pages 226 to 227). However, in 1937 he was able to combine the two positions (Decree No. 130. By disposing of the incompatibilities indicated by the laws for the performance of public office, Official Gazette of the National Defense Board of Spain 30, of 09/28/1936, page 117). As a national deputy he participated in various commissions, but he could never aspire to a role other than a substitute in which he was most interested in, education, since within Izquierda Republicana there were many teaching professionals and positions were quite close. On 23 August 1936 he was appointed Civil Commissioner of Recruitment in Murcia. With this practice, the Republic tried to create an army of volunteers and to render ineffective the militias that could be submitted to the control by the rebellious military. These commissions were in operation until March 1937, when the Government suppressed the Comité Central del Ejército Voluntario (Central Committee of the Voluntary Army), considering that there were already enough soldiers. Therefore, from that moment Eliseo ceased his position as Civil Commissioner of Recruitment and held the office of deputy exclusively. The Spanish Civil War and the bombings affected the regular evolution, not only of the Normal School, but of the whole society. The situation became quite precarious. A proof of this is that on 9 September 1937, complying with the Decree of 6 August 1937, which obliged all individuals and entities to deposit all stones and precious metals, pearls and jewellery that they had in their possession, Eliseo Gómez Serrano made a deposit of jewellery, pearls, stones and precious metals in the Alicante branch of the Bank of Spain in the amount of 2475 pesetas. During the 1938-1939 academic year the Normal School could not start its classes until January 1938 with the presence of very few students and teachers and with a great lack of resources. In 1938 he was appointed, despite himself, as the new director of the Normal School. He held his position with responsibility and hard work in order to try to ensure the functioning of the School during those times. He was replaced again by Manuel Sala Pérez. When the Spanish Civil War came to an end, Eliseo trusted in an agreement and negotiation between the Consejo Nacional de Defensa (National Defence Council) and the Francoist side, so, despite he had requested passports for him and his family, he did not leave the country like other Republicans. However, the extent of the repression caused Eliseo to be arrested on 2 April. He was transferred from his home to the Institute for the Blind. He entered the prison from the police station and was placed by the public force at the disposal of the Civil Government of the province on 3 April 1939. On the 8th of that same month, a brief was received from the permanent Military Duty Court, by which it was arranged that the detainee should be retained at the disposal of the War Auditor, and he was joined to the file of Dionisio Álvarez Bella. That day his statement was recorded and he recognized belonging to Izquierda Republicana, to Freemasonry and being a person who supported order and nonviolent acts, citing as witnesses Manuel Sala Pérez, José María Ribelles, and Fermín Bronchal. On 12 April 1939, a summary execution of urgency was opened, whose investigating judge was Captain D. Sergio González Collado and Secretary D. Enrique Sala Mira, for whom he was declared accused and in prison at the Alicante Adult Reform Court. Moreover, the instructional activities began, requesting a report to the Mayor's Office of Alicante and the Public Order Delegation. On 18 April Eliseo's investigative declarations were taken, confirming what was said earlier and asserting that he never persecuted the Falange Española or any other party or organization and even that he favored some right‑wing people. And that, being able to go abroad, he preferred to stay when he considered that he had not committed any crime. The people who could endorse his behavior are extended in their declaration: Juan Nicolau (who finally did not declare), Rafael and Pedro Beltrán de la Llave and Joaquín Tormo. Manuel Sala Perez declared twice, once for being the witness of the accused and another for being proposed, along with Sofía Capellín Pascual, secretary of the Normal School of Teaching, as people of recognized moral solvency and addicted to the Glorious National Movement. All the witnesses agreed that Eliseo was a good person, with a moderate behavior and left ideas. On 21 April the investigating judge drafted the summary order in which his stay in prison was ratified and the proceedings were sent to the Permanent War Council for his hearing and ruling. Finally, this Council resolved that there was an offense of adhesion to the military rebellion with the aggravating circumstance of danger and transcendence, for which the death penalty was requested for Eliseo Gómez Serrano. The trial would be re‑open on 24 April without the attendance of witnesses and a day before, on 23 April, a document was prepared for the advocate to hear the case. Finally Eliseo was sentenced for the crime of joining the military rebellion with the aggravating circumstance of the facts and perversity to the death penalty. On 25 April the Auditoría de Guerra del Ejército de Ocupación (War Audit of the Occupation Army) approved the sentence declaring it final judgement. It was brought to the attention of the Head of State, who acknowledged on 28 April. A day later the writs were issued to the Execution Judge from Alicante. On 5 May 1939, he was handed over to the picket line in charge of executing his death sentence. He died at 6:00 pm as a result of a gunshot wound. His burial is in the Municipal Cemetery of Alicante.

Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

Date of the event: 1936 - 1939

 

Occupations

Profession (carried on by):

Primary school teachers

Profession (carried on by):

Profesores

(Function) He/She carries out/ perform:

Legislators  Obs.:  Constituyente por Alicante

Places

Domicile:

Madrid (España)

Domicile:

Granada (España)

Lugar de Nacimiento:

València (España) in 1889-11-14

Lugar de Defunci¾n:

Alicante (España) in 1939-05-05

Subjects

Gender:

Varón

Related Authorities

Associative relations :

Acción Republicana (España)  (He/She is a member of)

Izquierda Republicana (España)  (He/She is a member of)

Family relationships :

Martínez Bay, Emma (1893-1957)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Andrés Zamora, Teresa (1907-1946)  - Collateral (He/She is my brother-in-law/sister-in-law)

Gómez Nadal, Emili (1907-1994)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of; Hermanos de padre.)

Documents

Producer of:

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