Spanish Archives - Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport

Person - Heros, Martín de los (1784-1859)

Heros, Martín de los (1784-1859)




Preferred form:

Heros, Martín de los (1784-1859)Other forms

Fechas de existencia:

Manzaneda de Sierra (Valle de Carranza, Bizkaia, España)  1784-11-08 - Madrid (España)  1859-03-14


He completed his first studies in Valmaseda, then studying Humanities at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He entered the University of Oñate, where he began studies of Jurisprudence, being expelled from it in February 1804. He entered immediately, in the same month, in the body of the Corps Guards, thus beginning his military career.

He participated in the Mutiny of Aranjuez, in March 1808, being one of those in charge of the custody of Godoy after his arrest and until his delivery to the French. When the Napoleonic invasion took place, he left the Army after the dispersion of the Corps of Guards of Corps in El Escorial, to join the ranks of those who fought against the French.

With the proclamation of the Constitution of 1812 after the "pronouncement" of Riego -Cabezas de San Juan (1820) -, he obtained his first civil job, on the recommendation of the Marquis de las Amarillas, being appointed 7th official of the Secretary of State and from the Office of the Overseas Government and Secretary of His Majesty on December 6, 1820, coinciding with the performance of the Overseas Secretariat by his friend Ramón Gil de la Cuadra.

The intervention, in April 1823, of the Hundred Thousand Sons of San Luis made him return to the Army, leaving the country when, in October, the king (Fernando VII), liberated by the forces of the Duke of Angouleme, regained absolute power. and declared void all government acts prior to 1820. He went first to England, through Portugal, from there to start the road to Paris, but in Bordeaux he was subjected to surveillance by the French police, which is why he decided to return to England in July 1825. He settled permanently in Liege, where he devoted himself to the study of scientific and industrial subjects, remaining there until the end of the Ominous Decade in 1834.

He returned after the death of Fernando VII, receiving the appointment of Minister of the Interior on September 15, 1835, on an interim basis, in the progressive cabinet of Mendizábal, replacing Ramón Gil de la Cuadra, being confirmed in office on the day 27 of the same month, performing it until May 15, 1836. Designated representative of Vizcaya in the State of Procurators called by the Royal Statute. His parliamentary interventions, both in this legislature, and in the next, constituted after the elections of February 1836, in which he was also proclaimed elected by Vizcaya, were linked to his condition as minister, and were an exponent of progressive politics.

Notable within its ministerial work are the suppression of the Police Superintendency, whose functions were assumed by the Ministry of the Interior, by Decree of October 4, 1835, and the creation, by another Decree of February 25, 1836, of a commission in charge of studying, with a view to their unification, the various systems of weights and measures used in Spain; got the freedom of the press.

Some provisions relating to the development of science and education, a reflection of the interest aroused by these issues during his stay in Liège, deserve to be remembered: the creation of a scientific college for application sciences, by Royal Decree of November 19, 1835 ; the instructions for the improvement of primary education contained in the Royal Order of February 4, 1835 and the provisions on the formation of the statutes of economic societies contemplated in the Royal Order of February 14, 1836. He was elected honorary member of the Royal Academy of History on January 8, 1836.

His participation in the activity of the Constituent Courts (1836-1837) was intense, being appointed member of several commissions, among which those of Etiquette, Public Instruction, Library, State, Roads and Canals, Government, Commerce, Overseas and Mining stand out. . In this legislature he served as vice president of Congress in April 1837, and as president from May 3 to June 1 of the same year.

His interventions in the debates were equally numerous, being noteworthy those relating to the draft Constitution, of which he will appear as a signatory once approved, swearing it on June 18, 1837. He defended the existence of two co-legislating bodies equal in powers, rejecting the term Establishment to name the Chambers, and proposing those of the Senate and General Council, more in keeping, according to him, with the historical tradition and the precision of the legal and legal language. He proposed that the Senate be elective, not royally appointed, although he considered its lifetime character possible. In addition to some speeches on very specific issues, most of them are a constant reflection of his political approaches and intellectual concerns: issues related to the Carlist war; the reform of the clergy; the legislation electoral action, again modified in this legislature; as well as aspects related to curricula and public instruction.

The defeat of the progressives in the following elections deprived Martín de los Heros of his seat in Congress, being elected senator for Madrid on January 28, 1838, swearing in the following February 28. Appointed a member of the Budget Committee, he actively participated in the debates, as he had done before in Congress. Senate Regulations, state loans, taxes, tithes, rents, and other contributions were again matters of his greatest interest, along with the need to promote a new law on secondary and higher education. The legislative reforms adopted by the moderate government in June 1840 (City Council Law), aimed at modifying the political system, while still maintaining the Constitution, led to the Barcelona uprising in July, and the arrival of Espartero to the government in October, who assumed the regency.

After these events, Heros, was appointed director of the National Library, a position he accepted without pay. A Decree of December 2, 1840, appointed him general intendant of the Royal House and Heritage. The performance of this post, from which he resigned in July 1843, after the departure of Espartero from the regency of the kingdom, coincided with his election as senator for Madrid in 1841, however the commission of minutes did not consider him subject to re-election by the maintenance of it. Again his parliamentary activity was intense throughout the successive periods of sessions that followed one another until the dissolution of 1843, forming part of about twenty-eight committees, and intervening in the debate of more than seventy issues, the most prominent being those relating to the tutelage of the Queen and the appointment of the regency, the budgets, the endowments of worship and clergy, and the organization and powers of the town halls. The appointment of González Bravo as head of the Government, which began the Moderate Decade (1843 -1854), meant his withdrawal from political life.

Confirmed as a permanent member of the Royal Academy of History on March 5, 1847, he delivered his entrance speech on the Valmaseda Archive. In the Progressive Biennium he was again appointed mayor of the Royal House and Heritage in September 1854. Elected in November as a deputy for Burgos, the Minutes Commission ruled that this condition was incompatible with his post as mayor, but the plenary session approved his powers. Appointed a member of the Commission on the Bases of the Constitution, he participated intensively in the preparation of a text, which, although it was never promulgated (Constitución non nata de 1856), expressed a clear concern about offering other means of political alternation, and putting I curb the way used by the Crown to exercise its powers. He also participated in the debate on the investigation into the conduct of María Cristina, who had once again left the country, and her interventions regarding the Royal Household budgets were notorious.

Dissolved the Chamber in September 1856, he happened, a few months later, in May 1857, to occupy his seat as senator for life, intervening only in the constitutional reform project, which he opposed, manifesting his twelve-year faith. Appointed in the legislature of 1858 inspector of the Library, his death was communicated to the Senate by his friend Ramón Gil de la Cuadra.


Lugar de Nacimiento:

Manzaneda de Sierra (Valle de Carranza, Bizkaia, España) in 1784-11-08

Lugar de Defunción:

Madrid (España) in 1859-03-14





García Muñoz, Montserrat. "Martín de los Heros de las Bárcenas". En Real Academia de la Historia, Diccionario Biográfico electrónico. [Consulta: 23-12-2020].

Gil Novales, Alberto. "Heros, Martín de los". En: Diccionario Biográfico de España (1808-1833): de los orígenes del liberalismo a la reacción absolutista. Madrid: Fundación MAPFRE. 2000. Vol. II, pag. 1480.

Related Authorities

Biblioteca Nacional de España (Madrid)  ( Es titular de/ es beneficiario de/ es el presidente de )

Associative relations :

Gil de la Cuadra, Ramón (1774-1860)  ( Es colega/ amigo de )

Real Academia de la Historia (España)  ( Es miembro de )

External Links

Biografía virtual:

Diccionario biográfico de la RAH

Catálogo de Autoridades:


Fichero de Autoridades:

Biblioteca Nacional de España


Producer of:

  • No Units of Description associated.

Related documents:

  • Archivo Histórico Nacional  (1)