Francisco de Miranda
Person - Miranda, Francisco de (1750-1816)

Miranda, Francisco de (1750-1816)




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Miranda, Francisco de (1750-1816)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

1750-03-28 - San Fernando (Cádiz, España)  1816-07-14


Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez (Caracas, March 28, 1750-San Fernando, Cádiz, July 14, 1816). He was a politician, soldier, diplomat and writer. He participated in the independence of the United States, the French Revolution and the independence of Venezuela. He was the son of a Canary trader and studied philosophy at the University of Caracas. In 1771, he moved to Spain where he joined the army. He fought with the rank of Captain in the War of Independence of the United States against the British. Then he fought in the taking of Pensacola (1781), and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. He settled in Cuba where, along with Juan Manuel de Cajigal (1757-1823), Governor of Havana, participated in business with British traders. He was accused of contraband and treason, and also the Inquisition of Cartagena opened him a process because of the reading of banned books. After that, he was sentenced to 10 years of exile in Oran (December 1783), but he managed to escape and took refuge in the United States where he met important characters and tried unsuccessfully to help in his independence projects. In 1785, he embarks for Europe, and in order to obtain support for his projects, he went over the main European capitals. From 1790, he participated in the French Revolution, linked to the girondist party. He was promoted to field marshal of the army, and in 1792, under the command of Charles François Dumouriez (1739-1823), he fell into disgrace after the Jacobins access to power. After that, he was imprisoned (1793-1795), but was released when Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) fell. He stayed in Paris where he organized a Board of deputies in 1797, where there were several members representing each colony. In 1797, he moved to London where founded the Lodge named the Great American Meeting, in which fought Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842) and José de San Martín (1778-1850), which promoted the union of Spanish America after the independence. Then, he proposed to William Pitt (1759-1806), the formation of a parliamentary monarchy in America, under the influence of Great Britain. But he rejected the plan and, in 1805, he decided to send it to United States in order to organize a liberating expedition, this way he would be committed to the American Government, which would be driven into war with Spain and France. In February 1806, with the help of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), the expedition departed to the United States, but it failed in his two attempts made in April, and June of that same year, despite the support of the British Admiral Couchanare. In 1808, he returned to Great Britain where continued his activities in the political circles of London until, once he knew the revolutionary events of April 1810 in Caracas, he decided to return to Venezuela accompanied by Simón Bolívar (1783-1830). He attended to the Constituent Congress that, under the pressure of the Patriotic Society which he promoted, he got the Declaration of Independence in July 5, 1811. In August of that same year, he subjected the realist troops of Valencia and thanks to his intervention, the First Venezuelan Constitution (December 21, 1811) was promulgated. In 1812, he was appointed Generalissimo (April 28) and Dictator (May 19). He could not block the Spanish attack against the Republic. After several defeats, he capitulated in La Victoria (July 25), in exchange for the respect of the Venezuelan?s lives, liberty and property. He was accused of having unilaterally made the decision to surrender, betraying the cause of independence. A group of radical officers, headed by Bolívar, stopped him (July 31) and handed him over to the Spaniards. In June 1813, he was incarcerated in Puerto Rico and at the end of that year, he was transferred to the arsenal of La Carraca (San Fernando, Cádiz), where he died four years later.

Guerra de Independencia de Estados Unidos, 1775-1783

Date of the event: 1775 - 1783



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Lugar de Defunción:

San Fernando (Cádiz, España) in 1816-07-14




Related Authorities

Bello, Andrés (1781-1865)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Associative relations :

Bolívar, Simón (1783-1830)

Cagigal Monserrat, Juan Manuel de (1739-1811)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

External Links

Biografía virtual:

Diccionario biográfico RAH

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Catálogo de Autoridades:


Fichero de Autoridades:

Biblioteca Nacional de España


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