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Person - Iturbide Arámburu, Agustín de (1783-1824)

Iturbide Arámburu, Agustín de (1783-1824)




Preferred form:

Iturbide Arámburu, Agustín de (1783-1824)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

Morelia (Michoacán, México)  1783-09-27 - Tamaulipas (estado, México)  1824-07-19


Agustín de Iturbide (Valladolid, México, September 27, 1783 ? Padilla, July 19, 1824). He was a soldier and Mexican politician. He was the author of the Independence of Mexico (1821) and Emperor, with the name of Agustín I, of the New Mexican State (1822-23). -President of the Regency (September 28, 1821 ? May 18, 1822). -1st Emperor of Mexico (May 19, 1822 ? March 19, 1823). In 1798, he joined the army, and when in 1808 began the revolt against the Spanish, he refused to join her. He distinguished himself between the realists who won the battle of Monte de Las Cruces (1810); after obtaining the victory of Puruarán (January 5, 1814), the Viceroy Calleja appointed him Chief of the Northern army (September 1, 1815), but because of his arbitrariness, he was dismissed. In 1820, on the occasion of the pronouncement of Riego in the peninsula, he joined the independence movement that sought to prevent the establishment of the constitutional regime in Mexico. The viceroy Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca (1754-1835), commissioned him to quell the revolt of Vicente Guerrero in the South of the country. He did not make it; therefore he met Guerrero in Acatempan and proclaimed the independence of Mexico according to the Plan of Iguala (September 24, 1821). The moderation of this program and the rivalries between realistic ranks with the resignation of the viceroy Apodaca, created a favorable climate for emancipation. In this light, the new viceroy, Juan José O' Donojú (1762-1821) signed with Iturbide the Treaty of Córdoba (August 24, 1821), which repeated in essence the content of the Plan of Iguala, and the inclusion of the proposal to designate an Emperor by the Mexican Courts if the Spanish Court did not accept the Crown of Mexico. When he was in charge of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Iturbide entered in the capital (September 27) He presided over a Governing Board, which was made up of 38 members, and a Regency, formed by five members, O? Donojú among them. Iturbide was appointed Generalissimo receiving the treatment of Highness. When O? Dojonú died in October, and to the Spanish Government's refusal to accept the Treaty of Córdoba in February of the following year, he facilitated the predominance of Iturbide, that is why the Mexican people proclaimed him Emperor (May, 1822). Under the popular pressure, he was accepted by the Congress and crowned with the name of Agustín I (July 21, 1822). During his government, he managed the annexation of Central America to his empire. Also, thanks to Gabino Gaínza (1753-1829) and Vicente Filisola?s effort (1789-1850). When he rejected the Congress, which was consisting of liberal and republican elements, a project for his reform, Iturbide dissolved it (October 1822) and created in place the ?Junta Nacional Instituyente? - Instituent National Board - in order to establish an absolutist Government. Faced with these events, General Santa Ana (1795-1876) revolted in Veracruz and proclaimed the Republic (December 2). Shortly after, other Generals joined, such as Guadalupe Victoria, Guerrero, Bravo, and the forces that, sent by Echavarri and Cortazar, had to quell the revolt. The advance of the Santa Anna?s troops forced Iturbide to abdicate facing the Congress on March 19, 1823, later he went to Europe. He was sentenced to death in his absence, Iturbide, unware of this circumstance, returned to Mexico and was executed on July 19.



Lugar de Nacimiento:

Morelia (Michoacán, México) in 1783-09-27

Lugar de Defunción:

Tamaulipas (estado, México) in 1824-07-19




Related Authorities

Centeno, Lucas (1730-1812)

Associative relations :

Rivas Vértiz, Juan (1774-?)  ( He/She is the enemy of-He/She is facing- It is the minority )

Rus Ortega, José Domingo (1768-1835)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

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