Person - López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón, Antonio (1795-1876)

López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón, Antonio (1795-1876)




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López de Santa Anna Pérez de Lebrón, Antonio (1795-1876)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

Xalapa-Enríquez (Veracruz, México)  1795-02-21 - Ciudad de México (México)  1876-06-21


Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (Xalapa, February 21, 1794 ? Mexico, June 21, 1876). He was a Soldier, Mexican politician and the President of Mexico on several occasions. Already a general, December 2, 1822, Santa Anna rose up against Agustín Iturbide (1783-1824), who was proclaimed emperor. He signed the Plan de Casa Mata with Guadalupe Victoria on February 1, 1823, in which it was called for the restoration of the Congress and the recognition of the sovereignty of the nation. Also, it was prohibited to infringe the sovereignty of the emperor. Shortly after, he proclaimed the Republic in Veracruz and once the Republic was established and being Military Commander of Yucatan, in 1824 he declared war upon Spain. He suspended the trade between Cuba and the Peninsula. He tried to conquer the island, project that was unauthorized by the Mexican Government, which accepted his resignation (1825). In 1828, he rose up against Manuel Gómez Pedraza (1789-1851), in favor of the establishment of Guerrero in the power. In September 1829, he defeated the Spanish troops who had landed in the country. In 1832, he leaped against the dictatorship of Anastasio Bustamante (1780-1853), and in April 1833 he achieved the Presidency of the Republic. His capacity as leader was scarce, so finally he had to cede to the Vice President, Valentin Gomez Farias (1781-1858), in the course of the executive power. When Gómez Farías initiated an ecclesiastical and military reform, Santa Anna changed sides and agreed with the conservatives. In 1834, Santa Anna defeated Gomez Farias and assumed again the Presidency. Because of the expulsion of the Mexican troops in Texas, Santa Anna entered in rebel territory and exterminated the defenders of El Álamo. But he was defeated and captured in the Valley of San Jacinto in 1836. To buy his freedom, he signed the Independence of Texas and retired to Hacienda of Manga de Calvo. In November 1838, during the war with France, Santa Anna was again claimed as the safeguard of the Independence of Mexico. He was interim President with Bustamante (January and July 1839), dismissed Bustamante and was proclaimed as provisional President (1841). He tried to institutionalize his power but the opposition of the Constituent Congress of 1842 forced him to dissolve it and to establish the dictatorship, in which he promulgated a centralist Constitution (1843). At the end of 1844, he was dismissed and forced to leave Mexico. He settled in Havana until the United States, at the beginning of the war with Mexico, facilitated him the return to his country. In 1846, he was proclaimed President by a federalist uprising and stated again his union to liberalism, although on March 1847 he assumed the Presidency and drove out the liberals. In the same month, he was defeated by the troops of Scott in Jalapa, and under his command and because of his bad strategy, the Mexican army beat in retreat. In 1848, he renounced the Presidency and leaved the country. The chaotic situation created in 1852, after the proclamation of the Plan of Hospicio, made him into the only figure to assume the government with the support of liberals, conservatives and the army. He came back from Colombia from where he was banished and, at the request of Lucas Alaman (1792-1853), he assumed the dictatorship (April 1853), which practiced with despotism. Later, he repealed the federal Constitution of 1846. He signed the Treaty of La Mesilla (1843) with United States and more than one million kilometers of American territory were sold in this country. At the end of 1853, the nation extended the extraordinary faculties with which he ruled, adding the possibility of choosing a successor. He also was awarded with the title of "Serene Highness". The growing discontent against the dictatorship, culminated in the revolution of Ayutla (1855), which dismissed Santa Anna and forced him into exile in Havana, although later he return to Mexico. During the Second Empire and with his fall (1867), Santa Anna tried to intervene again in the politics of his country but he did not found support. In 1874, the President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1823-1889) allowed him to return to Mexico, where he died and was forgotten.







Lugar de Nacimiento:

Xalapa-Enríquez (Veracruz, México) in 1795-02-21

Lugar de Defunción:

Ciudad de México (México) in 1876-06-21




Related Authorities

Ramos Arizpe, José Miguel (1775-1843)  ( It has as a member )

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