Trinidad Arroyo
Person - Arroyo Villaverde, Trinidad (1872-1959)

Arroyo Villaverde, Trinidad (1872-1959)




Preferred form:

Arroyo Villaverde, Trinidad (1872-1959)Other forms

Fechas de existencia:

Palencia (España)  1872-05-26 - Ciudad de México (México)  1959-09-28


Exiled Spanish ophthalmologist. She was the first woman to graduate in Medicine in the University of Valladolid in 1895, and the first woman to obtain a PhD in ophthalmology and otology in Spain, with the outstanding grade.

She was the daughter of Laureano Arroyo, who supported her completely, so she could complete her university studies. She studied her baccalaureate in the Jorge Manrique High School of Palencia. Later, she graduated in Medicine by the University of Valladolid. Finally, in 1896, she obtained her PhD in Medicine by the former Universidad Complutense of Madrid with the thesis: "Intrinsic muscles of the eye in normal and pathological state: action of drugs".

She returned to her homeland and opened there an ophthalmology office with her brother Benito Arroyo, also a doctor. In 1902, she married Dr. Manuel Márquez Rodríguez, her and her brother's colleague, starting then an outstanding professional collaboration that would remain for nearly six decades until her death.

In 1903, her brother Benito passed away prematurely, which was a huge loose for Trinidad, as he was not only her brother, but also her colleague and friend, and always a big supporter of her.

In 1908, the couple moved to Madrid as Manuel was appointed chair of Therapeutic in the Faculty of Medicine of San Carlos and her was teaching assistant of the same. Moreover, in their private residence in Paseo de Moret they had a private consultation, open from 1911 to 1936. Trinidad collaborated with the Consultorio de Niños de Pecho y Gota de Leche, created in Madrid by Dr. Rafael Ulecia.

In 1912, the Márquez-Arroyo couple successfully operated on the eyesight of the novelist Galdós. She was vice-president of the Women's Committee of Popular Hygiene of Madrid, member of the Lyceum Club and was founder and president of the Association of Medical Women of Spain. In addition, she participated in numerous national and international congresses and was fluent in French, English and German.

With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Trinidad and Manuel supported the government of the Second Republic. She was a member of the AERCU (Spanish Association for Cultural Relations with the USSR), presided by Manuel, and of the National Committee of Antifascist Women. In the middle of the conflict, they marched to Valencia following the government. From there they went to Barcelona and in February 1939, they went to France, living briefly in Paris. Thus began the period of exile. In May 1939, they crossed the Atlantic aboard the ship Flandre, and after a brief stop in New York, they arrived in the Mexican capital at the beginning of June 1939.

In Mexico, her easiness with languages gave her a position as a translator of medical publications. Moreover, along with her husband, they continued practicing medicine. The couple did not have any children. Trinidad came back only once to Spain in 1955 to make a will bequeathing her estate to a foundation that would allow students from her homeland to attend high school in Palencia and the University of Valladolid. She returned to Mexico and died in the Mexican capital at the age of 87.

Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

Date of the event: 1936 - 1939

Flandre (barco de vapor)

Date of the event: 1939-05-19



Trinidad Arroyo fue una de las primeras mujeres en España que gozó de una larga y fecunda trayectoria profesional, y que además fue reconocida por ello. Precursora en su campo de acción, apoyó iniciativas que favorecieron la mejora social y la educación sanitaria de la mujer.

El Patronato de la Fundación benéfico-docente "Fundación Becas Trinidad Arroyo Villaverde" concede anualmente becas para alumnos de secundaria y becas para alumnos que se matriculen en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Valladolid y que procedan del Instituto Jorge Manrique de Palencia.


(Función) Desempeña/lleva a cabo/realiza:

Profesores universitarios

Profesión (Es realizada por):


Profesión (Es realizada por):




(Función) Desempeña/lleva a cabo/realiza:

Profesores universitarios


Lugar de Nacimiento:

Palencia (España) in 1872-05-26

Lugar de Defunción:

Ciudad de México (México) in 1959-09-28




(Función) Desempeña/lleva a cabo/realiza:



AGA: Expediente académico de Trinidad Arroyo Villaverde. Licenciada en Medicina. Signatura: AGA, Caja 31/15298

Related Authorities

Family relationships :

Márquez Rodríguez, Manuel (1872-1962)  - Marriage (Esta casado/a con)

Arroyo López, Jerónimo (1871-1946)  - Collateral (Es primo/a de)

Arroyo Villaverde, Benito (1874-1903)  - Collateral (Es hermano/a de)


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