Person - Habsburgo-Lorena, María Cristina (1858-1929, reina consorte de España)

Habsburgo-Lorena, María Cristina (1858-1929, reina consorte de España)

Identification

Type:

Person

Preferred form:

Habsburgo-Lorena, María Cristina (1858-1929, reina consorte de España)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

1858-06-21 - Madrid (España)  1929-02-08

History:

Maria Christina of Habsburg-Lorraine (1858-1929), Queen (1879-1885) and Regent of Spain (1885-1902), of Austrian origin. She was born on 21 June 1858 in Gross-Seelowitz (Moravia, now part of the Czech Republic), daughter of the Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria and niece of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I.

On November 29, 1879 she became Queen of Spain after marrying the Spanish monarch Alfonso XII in Madrid, who remarried after the death of his first wife, Mercedes of Orléans.

After the birth of her two daughters (María de las Mercedes and María Teresa), she was pregnant when her husband died on 25 November 1885. At that time she assumed the regency without knowing if the son she was expecting would be a boy.

She served as regent in a quiet political period thanks to the so-called Pact of El Pardo, agreed during the serious convalescence of the monarch between Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. They were, respectively, head of the two main dynastic parties, the Conservative and Liberal: the commitment set a peaceful stage of alternation in power of both formations.

During the almost 17 full years in which she was regent, only four different people held the presidency of the government: Sagasta, on four occasions; Cánovas, in two (died in 1897 in the last of them); Marcelo Azcárraga, in equal numbers; and Francisco Silvela, who formed a single cabinet in that period.

In her last years of regency the Moroccan problem worsened and the social conflict aggravated. The beginning of political Catalanism also dates back to this period. In 1898, under a cabinet headed by Sagasta, the Spanish-American War took place and the consequent loss of the rest of the Spanish colonial possessions in America and Asia after the signing of the Treaty of Paris at the end of that year.

On May 17, 1902 his son Alfonso XIII (born on May 17, 1886 in Madrid) ascended to throne when he reached the age of majority and thus the regency ended. From then on, the Queen Mother dedicated herself to charitable works, remaining in the background in political matters. On February 8, 1929 she died in Madrid.

Internal Structure-Genealogy:

Hija de los archiduques de Austria Carlos Fernando e Isabel de Austria-Este-Módena y sobrina del emperador austriaco Francisco José I.

Occupations

Activity:

Reinas Regentes between 1888-11-25 and 1902-05-17

Places

Lugar de Defunción:

Madrid (España) in 1929-02-08

Sources

Ferrera Cuesta, Carlos: Diccionario de Historia de España.-Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 2005.

Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana .-Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1991. Tomo XXXIII, p. 43.

Rubio Aragonés, María José: Reinas de España, Siglos XVIII-XXI, de María Luisa Gabriela de Saboya a Letizia Ortíz.-Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2009. P. 709-781

Related Authorities

Family relationships :

Alfonso XII (1857-1885, rey de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Alfonso XIII (1886-1941, rey de España)  - Progenitor (She is the mother of)

Borbón Battenberg, María Cristina de (1911-1996, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (He/She is the grandfather/grandmother of)

Borbón Habsburgo-Lorena, María de las Mercedes de (1880-1904, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (She is the mother of)

Borbón Habsburgo-Lorena, María Teresa de (1882-1912, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (She is the mother of)

See successors

Reina consorte de España  ( Ocupa /Ejerce de_en )

Charge :