Person - Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)

Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)




Preferred form:

Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España)  1784-10-14 - Madrid (España)  1833-09-29


Ferdinand VII (San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain, October 14, 1784 – Madrid, September 29, 1833). He was the King of Spain (1808, 1814-1833), son of Charles IV (1748-1819) and Maria Luisa of Parma (1751-1819).

In the first short period of his Government (March 19, 1808 - May 6) he began a palatial revolt with Godoy, in the discredit to the reign of Charles IV, which raised him to the throne after having forced the abdication of his father. After these events, he went to meet Napoleon to get from him his recognition as King. Napoleon took advantage of the dynastic conflict to gather the Royal family in Bayonne, achieving the abdication of Ferdinand in favor of his father and this one in favor of Napoleon, who in turn handed over the Crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844). Once Ferdinand VII was dethroned, on May 12 he published in Bordeaux a proclamation asking for submission to Napoleon. After that, he retired to the Castle of Valençai, the Spanish revolted against the invader, while in Cádiz it began a bourgeois revolution that gave the country a constitutional regime (Cádiz Constitution 1812).

Under the pressure of the Captain General of Valencia, Francisco Javier de Elío (1767-1822), the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the numerous representations that came to Valencia, Ferdinand VII drafted the Decree of May 4, 1814, by which he declared as null the Decrees emanated of the Courts and the Cádiz Constitution of 1812. Then, he was restored as absolute monarch.

The political structure of the previous regime and social hierarchy were restored almost unchanged. In foreign policy, he failed faced with the Congress of Vienna. Later, Cea Bermúdez (1779-1850), got the inclusion of Spain in the Holy Alliance. In America, the American insurgents, Bolivar and San Martin, among others, won decisive victories (Chacaboco, 1817; Maipú, 1818; Boyacá, 1819). The liberal movement triggered various uprisings; Mina (1814); Porlier (1815); Lacy (1817); Vidal (1819), until, finally, in 1820 the Coup d’état of the Colonel Rafael del Riego (1784-1823) triumphed. He was revolted along with other colleagues and in charge of the troops gathered in Cabezas de San Juan and other nearby towns destined for America. The movement got the membership in numerous garrisons of different cities, that is the reason why Ferdinand VII had to capitulate faced with the triumphant liberal revolution. On 7 March, Ferdinand VII swore the Constitution of 1812, and on March 10, it was published the famous manifesto in which it said “Marchemos francamente, y yo el primero, por la senda constitucional” - Leave, frankly, and I the first, by the constitutional path -.

While the Courts of the Liberal Triennium radicalized the program of reform designed by the Cortes of Cádiz, the monarch opted for prepare the means to abolish the constitutional regime. Once the absolutist uprising of the Royal Guard (6 and July 7, 1822) failed and the attempt to create, with de Regency of Urgell, a rival authority of the constitutional government, he addressed legitimist powers of the Holly Alliance to request an intervention in Spain. They gathered at the Congress of Verona, and delegated in France the military intervention to reinstate Ferdinand VII as monarch and put an end to the Spanish Constitutional System. The Hundred Thousand Sons of San Louis entered Spain on April 1823, and in autumn of that same year, Ferdinand VII was restored as absolute monarch. On October 1, he gave a decree whereby declared as null the acts of the Liberal Triennium.

The Ominous Decade (1823-1833) was a period of restoration of the absolutism in which the loss of the American colonies was consummated.

At the end of his reign, he thought about the inheritance problem. Once the Salic law of Philip V was abolished, the king’s brother, Charles, and with him the pure absolutists, did not admit the succession of Isabel, who was born of the marriage of Ferdinand VII with Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies (1806-1878). His wife, Maria Christina, became Regent of the Kingdom during the underage status of her daughter Isabel II (1830-1904).

Internal Structure-Genealogy:

Hijo de Carlos IV, rey de España, y de María Luisa de Parma. Fernando VII contrajo matrimonio en cuatro ocasiones:

-En 1802, se casó con su prima María Antonia de Nápoles (1784-1806), hija de Fernando IV de Nápoles y María Carolina de Austria.

-En 1816, en segundas nupcias, con su sobrina María Isabel de Braganza, Infanta de Portugal (1797-1818), hija de su hermana mayor Carlota Joaquina y de Juan VI de Portugal.

-En 1819, contrajo matrimonio por tercera vez con María Josefa Amalia de Sajonia (1803-1829), hija de Maximiliano de Sajonia y Carolina de Borbón-Parma.

-Finalmente, en 1829, volvió a casarse con otra de sus sobrinas, María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias (1806-1878), hija de su hermana menor María Isabel de Borbón y Francisco I de las Dos Sicilias. tuvieron dos hijas: Isabel II (1830-1904), reina de España y Luisa Fernanda (1832-1897), infanta de España, casada con Antonio II, duque de Montpensier.


Lugar de Nacimiento:

San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España) in 1784-10-14

Lugar de Defunción:

Madrid (España) in 1833-09-29



BERNECKER, Walther; COLLADO SEIDEL, Carlos y HOSER, Paul (ed. dirigida), Los reyes de España: dieciocho retratos históricos desde los Reyes Católicos hasta la actualidad.- Madrid, Siglo XXI de España, 2005, p. 215-232.

FERRERA CUESTA, Carlos., Diccionario de historia de España.- Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2005.

Related Authorities

Family relationships :

Borbón, María Cristina de (1806-1878, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Braganza, María Isabel de (1797-1818, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Sajonia, María Josefa Amalia de (1803-1829, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Borbón Borbón-Parma, Carlos María Isidro de (1788-1855, infante de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón Borbón-Parma, María Amalia de (1779-1798, infanta de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Carlota Joaquina de Borbón (1775-1830, reina consorte de Portugal)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Juan VI (1769-1826, rey de Portugal)  - Collateral (He/She is my brother-in-law/sister-in-law)

Carlos IV (1748-1819, rey de España)  - Descendant (He/She is the son/daughter of)

Parma, María Luisa de (1751-1819, reina consorte de España)  - Descendant (He/She is the son/daughter of)

Borbón, María Luisa Fernanda de (1832-1897, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (He is the father of)

Isabel II (1830-1904, reina de España)  - Progenitor (He is the father of)

See ancestors See successors

Carvajal Vargas, José Miguel de (1771-1828)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Associative relations :

Ostolaza Ríos, Blas Gregorio de (1771-1835)

King of Spain  ( Ocupa /Ejerce de_en )

Rocafuerte, Vicente (1783-1847)  ( He/She is the enemy of-He/She is facing- It is the minority )