Fernando VII rey de España
Person - Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)

Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)

Identification

Type:

Person

Preferred form:

Fernando VII (1784-1833, rey de España)Other forms

Dates of existence/Biographical dates:

San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España)  1784-10-14 - 1833-09-29

History:

Ferdinand VII (San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain, 14 October 1784; Madrid, 29 September 1833). He was the King of Spain (1808, 1814-1833), son of Charles IV (1748-1819) and Maria Luisa of Parma (1751-1819).

In the first short period of his Government (19 March 1808 - 6 May 1808) he began a palatial revolt with Godoy, in the discredit to the reign of Charles IV, which raised him to the throne after having forced the abdication of his father. After these events, he went to meet Napoleon to get from him his recognition as King. Napoleon took advantage of the dynastic conflict to gather the Royal family in Bayonne, achieving the abdication of Ferdinand in favor of his father Charles IV and this one in favor of Napoleon, who in turn handed over the Crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844). Once Ferdinand VII was dethroned, he published on 12 May from Bordeaux a proclamation asking for submission to Napoleon. After that, he retired to the Castle of Valençai. Meanwhile, the Spanish revolted against the French invaders, while in Cádiz a bourgeois revolution that gave the country a constitutional regime (Cádiz Constitution of 1812) began.

After the Peninsular War came to an end, he returned to Spain via Valencia. Under the pressure of the Captain General of Valencia, Francisco Javier de Elío (1767-1822), the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the numerous representations that came to Valencia, Ferdinand VII drafted the Decree on 4 May 1814, by which he declared as null the Decrees issued by the Cortes of Cádiz and the Cádiz Constitution of 1812. Then, he was restored as absolute monarch.

The political structure of the Old Regime and social hierarchy were restored almost unchanged. In foreign policy, he failed before the Congress of Vienna of 1814. Later, the Minister Cea Bermúdez (1779-1850) achieved the inclusion of Spain in the Holy Alliance.

In America, the American pro-independence leaders Bolivar and San Martin among others, won decisive victories (Chacaboco, 1817; Maipú, 1818; Boyacá, 1819). The liberal movement triggered various uprisings; Mina (1814); Porlier (1815); Lacy (1817); Vidal (1819), until finally, in 1820 the Coup d'État of the Colonel Rafael del Riego (1784-1823) triumphed. Riego revolted along with other colleagues and in charge of the troops gathered in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla) and other nearby towns destined for America. The movement got the support of numerous garrisons of different cities, forcing Ferdinand VII to capitulate as he was faced with the triumphant liberal revolution. On 7 March, Ferdinand VII swore the Constitution of 1812, and on 10 March, the famous manifesto which said "Marchemos francamente, y yo el primero, por la senda constitucional" ("Let us march frankly, and I am the first to do so, along the constitutional path.") was published.

While the Courts of the Trienio Liberal (Liberal Triennium) radicalized the program of reform designed by the Cortes of Cádiz, the monarch opted for preparing the means to abolish the constitutional regime. Once the absolutist uprising of the Royal Guard (6-7 July 1822) failed, and the attempt to create, during the Regency of Urgell, a rival authority of the constitutional government, he addressed European legitimate powers of the Holly Alliance to request an intervention in Spain. They gathered at the Congress of Verona of 1822, and delegated the military intervention to reinstate Ferdinand VII as monarch, and put an end to the Spanish Constitutional System in France. The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis entered Spain on April 1823, and in Autumn of that same year, Ferdinand VII was restored as absolute monarch. On 1 October, he gave a decree whereby declared as null the acts of the Trienio Liberal (Liberal Triennium).

This marked the beginning of the so-called Ominous Decade (1823-1833), which was a period of restoration of the absolutism in which the loss of the American colonies was consummated.

At the end of his reign, he thought about the inheritance problem. Once the Salic law of Philip V was abolished, the King's brother, Carlos María Isidro of Spain, and the pure absolutists, did not admit the succession of Isabella, who was born of the marriage of Ferdinand VII and Maria Cristina of the Two Sicilies (1806-1878). Once the King died in 1833, it was his wife, Maria Christina, who became Regent of the Kingdom during the underage status of her daughter Isabella II (1830-1904).

Liberal Triennium, 1820-1823

Date of the event: 1820 - 1823

 

Internal Structure-Genealogy:

Hijo de Carlos IV, rey de España, y de María Luisa de Parma. Fernando VII contrajo matrimonio en cuatro ocasiones:

-En 1802, se casó con su prima María Antonia de Nápoles (1784-1806), hija de Fernando IV de Nápoles y María Carolina de Austria.

-En 1816, en segundas nupcias, con su sobrina María Isabel de Braganza, Infanta de Portugal (1797-1818), hija de su hermana mayor Carlota Joaquina y de Juan VI de Portugal.

-En 1819, contrajo matrimonio por tercera vez con María Josefa Amalia de Sajonia (1803-1829), hija de Maximiliano de Sajonia y Carolina de Borbón-Parma.

-Finalmente, en 1829, volvió a casarse con otra de sus sobrinas, María Cristina de Borbón-Dos Sicilias (1806-1878), hija de su hermana menor María Isabel de Borbón y Francisco I de las Dos Sicilias. tuvieron dos hijas: Isabel II (1830-1904), reina de España y Luisa Fernanda (1832-1897), infanta de España, casada con Antonio II, duque de Montpensier.

Places

Lugar de Nacimiento:

San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid, España) in 1784-10-14

Lugar de Defunci¿n:

Madrid (España) in 1833-09-29

Subjects

Gender:

Varón

(Function) He/She carries out/ perform:

Despotism

Sources

FERRERA CUESTA, Carlos., Diccionario de historia de España.- Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2005.

Retrato de Fernando VII, rey de España por López Porteña en la Academia de San Fernando (Madrid). Signatura: AGA, PNT, Caja F/00188, sobre 02,008

Related Authorities

Bardají Azara, Eusebio de (1766-1842)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Associative relations :

Carvajal Vargas, José Miguel de (1771-1828)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Castelló Ginesta, Pedro (1770-1850)  ( It has as a member )

Escóiquiz, Juan de (1747-1820)  ( He/She is the legal guardian of )

Espés Fernández de Cordoba, Francisco Ramón de (1758-1841)  ( He/She is friend with )

Godoy, Manuel de (1767-1851)  ( He/She is the enemy of-He/She is facing- It is the minority )

López Ballesteros, Francisco (1771-1833)

Ostolaza Ríos, Blas Gregorio de (1771-1835)

King of Spain  ( Ocupa /Ejerce de_en )

Rocafuerte, Vicente (1783-1847)  ( He/She is the enemy of-He/She is facing- It is the minority )

Toledo Salm-Salm, Pedro Alcántara de (1768-1841)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Ugarte Larrazábal, Antonio de (1776-1830)  ( He/She/It collaborated with )

Vinuesa López de Alfaro, Matías (ca.1778-1821)

Zayas Chacón, José Pascual (1772-1827)

Family relationships :

Borbón, María Cristina de (1806-1878, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Borbón-Dos Sicilias, María Antonia de (1784-1806, princesa consorte de Asturias)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Braganza, María Isabel de (1797-1818, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Sajonia, María Josefa Amalia de (1803-1829, reina consorte de España)  - Marriage (He/She is married to)

Borbón Borbón-Dos Sicilias, Enrique de (1823-1870, infante de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the uncle/aunt of)

Borbón Borbón-Parma, María Amalia de (1779-1798, infanta de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón Braganza, Carlos Luis de (1818-1861)  - Collateral (He/She is the uncle/aunt of)

Borbón, Carlos María Isidro de (1788-1855, infante de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón, Francisco de Asís (1822-1902, rey consorte de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the uncle/aunt of)

Borbón, Francisco de Paula (1794-1865, infante de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón, María Isabel de (1789-1848, infanta de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón, María Luisa de (1782-1824, infanta de España)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Borbón Saboya, Luis Antonio de (1775-1844)  - Collateral (He/She is the cousin of)

Borbón-Dos Sicilias, Luisa Carlota de (1804-1844)  - Collateral (He/She is my brother-in-law/sister-in-law)

Carlota Joaquina de Borbón (1775-1830, reina consorte de Portugal)  - Collateral (He/She is the brother/sister of)

Juan VI (1767-1826, rey de Portugal)  - Collateral

Miguel I (1802-1866, rey de Portugal)  - Collateral (He/She is the uncle/aunt of)

Pedro I (1798-1834, emperador de Brasil)  - Collateral (He/She is the uncle/aunt of)

Carlos IV (1748-1819, rey de España)  - Descendant (He/She is the son/daughter of)

Parma, María Luisa de (1751-1819, reina consorte de España)  - Descendant (He/She is the son/daughter of)

Borbón Braganza, María Isabel Luisa (1817-1818, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (He is the father of)

Borbón, María Luisa Fernanda de (1832-1897, infanta de España)  - Progenitor (He is the father of)

Isabel II (1830-1904, reina de España)  - Progenitor (He is the father of)

See ancestors See successors

Temporary relationships :

Napoleón I (1769-1821, emperador de Francia)  - Contemporary (He/She is contemporary with)

External Links

Biografía virtual:

Diccionario biográfico RAH

Catálogo de Autoridades:

ISNI

Fichero de Autoridades:

ULAN

Fichero de Autoridades:

VIAF

Fichero de Autoridades:

Biblioteca Nacional de Espa¿a